region has been ruled by many great dynasties like Sathavahanas,
Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Mughals, Qutubshahis, asafjahis. Of which
the Kakathiyas impressions on architecture are found more in these
days too. Sathavahanas
ruled over the Telangana for about 400 years from the 2nd century
B.C. to beyond the 2nd century A.D. Sathavahanas were also called
Salivahanas and Satakarnis. In the 3rd century B.C., Simukha, the
founder of the Sathavahana dynasty, unified the various Andhra principalities
into one kingdom and became its ruler (271 B.C. -- 248 B.C.).Satakarni
II, the sixth ruler of the dynasty (184 B.C.) was an able ruler
who extended his kingdom to the west. He ruled for a period of 56
years. Pulumavi I has brought renewed strength and
glory to their kingdom. The only silver lining in this dynasty was
the excellent literary work, Gathasaptasati, of Hala, the 17th Satavahana king. Dharmapuri
in Karimnagar was the capital city for many years.
, Prataparudra, grandson of Rudramamba was great ruler who succeeded his grandmother in A.D.1295
and ruled till A.D.1323. He pushed the western border of his kingdom
up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided
the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and developed
by the Vijayanagara Rayas.
reign of Bahamani sultan Mohd Shah III, one sultan Quli Qutub, who
was born at Hamadan in Persia, came to Deccan and started his career
as a bodyguard of Mohd Shah. With his ability and courage he rose
from one position to another till he became the Governor of Telangana,
the eastren province of Bahmani kingdom.
When the Bahamani
sultanate became weak, Quli Qutub became independent and formed
his Qutubshahi Dynasty in 1518. From then, he devoted most of his
energies in extending his frontiers of his kingdom. He took possession
of part of Berar in the north, Rajkonda, Deverkonda, Gahanpura,
Kovilakonda and Panagal thus brought much of Telugu speaking areas
in to his possession. He defeated Sitapati of Bhogikala, and captured
Bellamkonda, Indrakonda, Khammam, Warangal etc. in 1543 Jamsheed
assassinated Quli Qutub.
fort was built by Quliqutub. His son Jamsheed became the King who
was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim in 1550 .During his reign,
trade and commerce flourished enormously. Telangana, like Egypt,
became the Mart of the whole world. Merchants from Turkistan, Arabia
and Persia used to frequent Telangana and found their trade attractive
and prosperous. In his reign two tanks namely Ibrahim Pantam tank
and Hussainsagar were built. He also built a bridge on river Musi,
which is known as Puranapul. The Hindus of Telangana remember him
for his patronage of Telugu literature. Many Telugu poets like Addanki
Gangadher Kavi, Panuganti Telanganarya, Kandukuri Rudra Kavi flourished
in his court. He gained goodwill among his Hindu subjects. He died
in 1580, and was succeeded by his son Quli Qutub Shah.
shifted his capital from Golkonda to Hyderabad on the river Musi.
He built the Jamia mosque at Charminar. He died in 1611. He
was succeeded by his nephew Mohd. Qutubshah as he had no sons. Mohd Qutub
Shah joined the confederation of Deccani powers against Moughals
to stop their advance towards Deccan/South. He was a scholar and
composed gazals, tarki, bunds and rubaya. He died in 1662, and was
succeeded by his son-in-law Sayyed Ahmed in 1667.
At this time
the Moughals annexed Ahmednagar and marched towards Golkonda. Sayyed
Ahmed signed the treaty, and accepted the suzerainity of Moughal
emporer Shah Jahan and agreed to pay 8 lakhs of rupees as tribute
With the connivance
of mirjumla the Mughal Emperor Aurgangzeb sent his son Mohd. Sultan
in 1656, who besiezed Golkonda and occupied Hyderabad. However on
intervention of Darashekou and Jahanara from Delhi, Aurangazeb was
compelled to raise the seize on payment of one crore and to surrender
Chinnoor. Later Mohd Sultan married the second daughter of Abdullah.
Abdullah died in 1672 and his son-in-law Abul Hassan succeeded him.
He appointed Madanna as his Prime Minister and his brother Akkanna
as commander in chief. In 1687 Auragazeb again attacked Golkonda
which successfully resisted -his advance. But due to treachery of
Sardar Khan a high officer in the Army who opened the gate of Golkonda
fort, captured the fort in 1687 and Abul Hassan was made captive.
They looted the city in every street and market place where lakhs
worth in cash, property, chinaware and costly carpets of aristocracy
of Hyderabad was founded by Mir Qamruddin Chin Qilich Khan. He was
the son of Aurangzeb's general . Ghazi-ud-din Khan Feroz Jang, who
traced his ancestry to Abu Bakr, the first Khalifa. In 1713, six
years after Aurangzeb's death, emperor Farrukhsiyar made Mir Qamruddin
Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk Feroz Jang.
Later, emperor Muhammad Shah conferred on him the title of Asaf
Jah, by which title the dynasty is still known. By 1724, Mir Qamruddin
had made himself virtually independent of Delhi, although he and
his successors continued to profess a nominal allegiance to the
Moghul emperor right up to 1858, when the British Crown assumed
the governance of India.
In 1799 the
Nizam aided the East India Company in the war with Tippu Sultan
and after the latter’s defeat and death, the British gave a part
of his territories to the Nizam.
of Nizam All Khan and the succession of his eldest surviving son,
Sikander Jah, occured on 7 August 1803.
died on 21 May 1829, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,
nasir-ud-Daula. By the Treaty of 1853, the province of Berar, along
with certain districits in the Raichur Doab and on the wertern frontier
of Hyderabad, were assigned for this purpose, their administration
being taken over by British officers under the control of the Resident
By the Treaty
of 1860, except for Berar, all the other districts assigned in 1853
Ali Khan was a minor when he succeeded his father afzal-ud-Daula
on 26 February 1869.
The Hyderabad contingent
with the exception of the artillery which was disbanded, was delocalized
and incorporated in the Indian Army, with provision for the protection
of the Nizam's dominion.
Nizam Mir Usman
Ali Khan Bahadur is the seventh in the line. He succeeded to the
gaddi on 29 August 1911. In 1918 the title of "is Exalted Highness"
was conferred on him as a hereditary distinction. Shortly thereafter,
by an autograph letter from the King, he was granted the title of
'Faithful Ally of the British Government.'
occupies a pivotal position in the heart of the country. In population,
revenue and importance it was the premier State in the country.
The population was nearly sixteen million and the annual revenue
Rs. 26 crores. Its area was over 82,000 square miles. Hyderabad
had its own coinage, paper currency and stamps. Hyderabad was treated
by the British no differently from other Indian States. The right
of intervention in internal affairs was repeatedly asserted and
Viceroy ascertained that the sovereignty of
the British Crown was supreme in India. The Viceroy pointed out
that it was the right of the British Government to intervene in
the internal affairs of Indian States, and that the Nizam did not
stand in a category separate from that of rulers of the other Indian
In March 1946 the cabinet mission
advised the princely states regarding the future of their merger
after the formation of independent India, and separate Pakistan
for Indian Muslims. This was further clarified in May 1946 referring
to the lapse of paramountency and formation of federation. The congress
opposed the Independent states outside the Federal Union, but the
Muslim league was encouraging the states to remain Independent.
Nizam of Hyderabad was under the influence
of a fanatical body called Ittehadul Musulmin under Kasim Razvi,
declared his intention to remain as independent state.
Soon after the announcement
of His Majesty's Government's plan of 3 June 1947, the Nizam issued
a firman declaring his intention not to send representatives to
the Constituent Assembly of either Pakistan or India, and making
it clear that on 15 August he would be entitled to resume the status
of an independent sovereign. It had been his ambition to secure
Dominion Status for his State, on the withdrawal of the British
and treatment then henceforth as a member of the British Commonwealth
of Nations. When he saw that clause 7 of the Indian Independence
Bill did not permit that grant of Dominion Status to an Indian State.
The Nizam sent a delegation to Delhi on 11 July headed by the Nawab
of Chhatari, President of the Executive Council, to meet Lord Mountbatten.
Meanwhile Laik Ali was pressing that
the Hyderabad issue should be taken to the United Nations Organization.
On 17 August, he wrote to Nehru that Hyderabad had decided to solicit
the good offices of the United Nations Organization in order that
the dispute between Hyderabad and India might be resolved and a
peaceful and enduring settlement arrived at.
The Indian Government did not agree
that Hyderabad had any right in international law to seek the intervention
of the United Nations Organization or any other outside body for
the settlement of the issue. And that as the Government of India
regarded the Indo-Hyderabad dispute as a purely domestic one, they
did not recognize the Nizam's claim to invoke the good offices of
the United Nations in that connation.
The below given are the detailed
notes on the history of Ancient,medieval ,modern period of the Telangana
region and also the freedom struggle, Razakar Movement and The separate
FREEEDOM STRUGGLE IN TELANGANA
THE TELANGANA AGITATION