ASAF JAHIS

Mir Kamaruddin founded ASAF JAHIS dynasty. He was one of the Ministers of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and the latter conferred on him the title of Asaf Jah. He negotiated a peace treaty with Nadirshah, the Iranian invader. Mir Kamaruddin got disgusted with the intrigues that prevailed in Delhi. He assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, conducted himself as an independent prince of Deccan, where he was a Subedar earlier. The Asaf Jahis rule over Golconda started with Auranganbad as its Capital.  

The Nizams of Asafjahi dynasty who ruled the Deccan:

(1)   Mir Kamaruddin (Nizam-ul-Mulk - Asaf Jah I) (AD 1724-1748)

(2)   Nasir Jung (AD 1748-1751)

(3)   Muzaffar Jung (AD 1750-1751)

(4)   Salabat Jung (AD 1751-1761)

(5)   Nizam Ali Khan - Asaf Jah II (AD 1762-1803)

(6)   Nizam III Sikandar Jah (AD 1803-1829)

(7)   Nizam IV -- Nasir-ud-Daula (AD 1829-1857)

(8)   Nizam V -- Afzal-ud-Daula (AD 1857-1869)

(9)   Nizam VI -- Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan (AD.1869-1911)

(10) Nizam VII -- Mir Osman Ali Khan (AD.1911-1948 September). 

The Hyderabad was founded in AD 1590 and built by Muhammad Quli, the fifth king of the Qutbshahi dynasty. The rule of the Nizams lasted not only from AD 1724 to 1948 but also concerned a large territory with diverse language groups. The State of Hyderabad extended from Narmada to Trichinapally and from Machilipatnam to Bijapur under Asaf Jah I. During the period of Afzal-ud-Daula (AD 1857-1869), it was estimated to be 95,337 sq.miles, which was more than 450 miles each way. After Nizam I, Asaf Jah, died in AD 1748, there was tussle for power among his son, Nasar Jung, and his grandson Muzaffar Jung. The British supported Nasar Jung whereas Muzaffar Jung got support from the French. These two heirs were subsequently killed by Nawabs of Kurnool and Cuddapah in AD 1750 and AD 1751 respectively. The third son of Nizam I, Salabat Jung became the ruler as Nizam.  

Hostilities remained in India between the French and the English in AD 1758 on the outbreak of seven-year war in Europe in AD 1756. As a result, the French lost their power in India and consequently the French also lost their influence at Hyderabad. Nizam Ali Khan (Nizam II) dislodged Salabat Jung and proclaimed himself as Nizam in AD 1762. The Nizam II moved the capital of the Deccan from Aurangabad to Hyderabad in 1763. Nizam's sovereignty had declined considerably in the later part of 18th century and he was compelled to sign six treaties with British.  

The British agreed to furnish Nizam Ali Khan with a force when required and pay Rs. 9 lakhs when troops are not required, in return for the Northern Circars in AD 1766. He signed another treaty conferring the Northern Circars to the British and the payment by the British was reduced to Rs.7 lakhs in AD 1768. He also signed another treaty, in which he surrendered the Guntur circar in AD 1788. The Nizam had conspired with Hyder Ali of Mysore and the Peshwa of the Marathas to drive away the British. The British learned about his designs and they marched against the Nizam, who had to sue for peace agreeing to the presence of British army, artillery and cavalry at Hyderabad. The Nizam was compelled to disassociate himself from Hyder Ali through another treaty. He signed another treaty with the British altering the earlier treaties to increase the strength of the English army in Hyderabad in AD 1800. The Nizam had to cede to the company an area comprising the districts of Rayalaseema and Bellary, in lieu of the cost of maintenance of the force. The Nizam lost not only the territory but also reputation and power. 

The Telugu land was divided into major divisions: one that came to be popularly called Telangana under the feudal rule of the Nizam, accounting approximately one-third of the entire land and the other, broadly designated as Andhra, in British India. The English cantonment, raised on the other side of Hussain Sagar, was named after Nizam III - Sikandar Jah (AD 1803-1829) as Secunderabad. The Afzal Gunj Bridge or the Nayapul, over the river Musi was constructed and established a General Hospital under the rule (AD  1857-1869) of Nizam V, Afzal-ud-Daula.  

The modern era of the development of the twin cities began soon after the last flood on the river Musi in AD 1908. The flood had shattered the lives of many people living in Hyderabad. Mr. M.Vishweshwarayya, the great engineer of Mysore, was specially appointed as adviser to the Nizam's Government to suggest measures for flood control and improvement of the city. Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were constructed as result of his suggestion in AD 1917. These two dams not only controlled the floods, but also supplied drinking water to the city. Another important step taken for the development of the city was the formation of the City Improvement Board in AD 1912, which paid greater attention to the construction of roads, markets, housing sites and shopping centers in the city. The Nizam VII, Osman Ali Khan, moved to Kingkothi, the northern suburb of the city in AD 1914, which helped in the development of its surroundings. Several public utility services were commissioned in AD 1922, which include electricity (AD 1923), rail connection to Bangalore (AD1928), and bus service (AD 1932). The bus routes radiated from the capital to all the district headquarters in AD 1936. The Madras-Karachi Air Service was linked with Hyderabad with Hakimpet as landing facility in AD 1935. Under the rule of Nizam VII, many building were constructed. They include Legislative Assembly, Hyderabad and Secunderabad railway stations, the High Court, City College, the Asafia Library, the Unani Hospital, and the Osmania University. The Nizam VII, The Osman Ali Khan, can be called as the maker of modern Hyderabad. The buildings constructed during his reign are impressive and represent a rich variety of architecture. Examples are the magnificent Osmania University, the sprawling Osmania General Hospital in the Mughal style, the lofty High Court in Indo-Saracenic style, the stately well-proportioned Legislative Assembly building in Saracenic-Rajasthani style. The Falaknuma, built by Nawab Viquar-ul-Umra, a Paigha Noble in AD.1892 has become a landmark like Charminar.

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